Algae for nutrient-importing for coral health,plus some cyano and more algae information.

Go down

Algae for nutrient-importing for coral health,plus some cyano and more algae information.

Post  liquidg on 22nd January 2012, 1:13 am

Algae takes many substances out of the waters including calcium carbonate and these should be added the your waters or your corals will become deffecient.

Algae facts
Algae body mass pics.
http://southeastqueenslandm.aforumfree.com/t1884-caulerpa-and-chaeto-for-importing-of-nutrients-which-one-is-best-and-why

Cyanobacteria with in all algae.
A valued contribution from cyanobacteria is the origin of all plants. The chloroplast with which plants make food for themselves is actually a cyanobacterium living within the plant's cells. Sometime in the late Proterozoic, or in the early Cambrian, cyanobacteria began to take up residence within certain eukaryote cells, making food for the eukaryote host in return for a home. This event is known as endsymbiosis and is also the origin of the eukaryotic mitochondrion.

Leaching from algae into waters-
Polysaccharides, complex organic nitrogenous matter, vitamins, proteins,enzymes,DNA,RNA,phenolic compounds and more.

Reducing unwanted algae-
Achieving alkalinity from 10 to 12 KH and calcium dosing will precipitate phosphates as calcium phosphate to a degree, thus reducing the foods that encourage unwanted algae and cyano.
The best and quickest way to reduce food for unwanted algae and cyano, is to use salt water pool phosphate remover, "very carefully"!

Dissolution of phosphate-as above-
When phosphates precipitate as calcium phosphate, it becomes insoluble in the reef aquarium. This is achieved by dosing to allow higher alkalinity levels then you would normally find in salt water.

Phosphates in live rock or substrates-
When phosphates enter live rock or substrates, they can only re enter the waters by dissolution and that requires relatively low PH levels.
There is another way that precipitated phosphate can be come available, that is by algaeís phosphatase enzyme. Algae will excrete these and can break down organically bound phosphate, releasing usable orthophosphate in order to provide food for them selves; also symbiotic algae can secrete these enzymes as well.

Cyano fixing nitrogen-
Cyano have the ability to collect dissolved atmospheric nitrogen and store it in its tissues. Upon death and decomposition or when eaten by herbivores, the stored nitrogen returns to the water as ammonium becoming food for algae. Of course in saltwater, which naturally has higher PH,this action is not available to marine algae. If PH is lower then 8.0 to 8.2 and if the aquarium has no fish or food added, the cyano and aerobic bacterium will allow the accumulation of nitrates.

Substances and algae-
Boron-deficiencies are thought to cause pigment losses in algae.

Manganese- is essential in nitrogen metabolism to stimulate photosynthesis in zooxanthellae and standard algae.

Iron- is essential for all forms of symbiotic and standard algae. The higher the alkalinity, the less free iron will be in solution and usable.

Hydrogen sulphide-some forms of cyano utilize as a hydrogen donor. Diatoms also utilize this for silica assimilation.

Copepods and amphipods-Both of these, though highly regarded as detritus consumers, also consume algae at a substantial rate.

Algae photosynthesis functions.
http://southeastqueenslandm.aforumfree.com/t1411-algae-photosynthesis

Algae/caulerpa goes sexual when you are not providing the right conditions for it, if it pales and dies,you killed it.

It suffers and as it dies it goes to spore to perpetuate the species, itís just natural preservation methods they use to continue its species upon its own death.

What is chaetomorpha?

Chaetomorpha is an algae type closely related to blue green algae-cyano bacteria. More so then other algae that all have smaller concentrations of cyano with in as well.
The heavy concentration of encapsulated bacteria as a bacterium enables it to pull nitrate out of your water and separate the atoms a great deal and not be a problem.
Itís not as efficient as caulerpa types that have bulbus forms at phosphate reduction.
Itís also a good home for amphipods.
This algae may suffer during the early stages of tank maturing while bacterial issues are abundant.

All algae needs slight amounts of aquarium grade iodide, especially at the beginning of establishing the area!Do not does iodine to an aquarium,it comes in all foods anyway!
From attachments/roots to surface waters should not be deeper then 6 inches of water for adequate light colour penetration to enable robust photosynthesis and the lights no higher then 5 inches above the water.
All algae survive and import at their best for the long term with temps between 22c up to 26c,no greater!

Caulerpa algae,a single celled algae imports at it's best with these conditions and yuo should not allow cyanobacteria to grow upon it.This should be cleaned off yuor importing algae with something like a small paint brush when some starts to settle on it or the caulerpa will be suffocated and possibly go sexual.

As with any plant life it has to be trimmed back or it will cover its self and weaken its lower reaches and it will go sexual.

Every part of caulerpa absorbs osmotically and uses or photosynthesises it's entire intake, if those areas can not achieve photosynthesis with near no light, as they grow over their lower growth zones,then that part weakens breaks off and eventually dies!

Caulerpa algae needs continual lighting for no less then 17 hours and no greater then 20 hours per 24 hour cycle.

24 hour lighting adversely confuses the photosynthetic aspect of caulerpa and they will begin make more CO2 rather then oxygen even when lights are on and may go sexual-die in the long term!

Its best to make sure the biological media is sufficient to oxidise the entire nitrite cycle until just nitrogen,orthophosphate and phosphorus is all that is left!

Plant life flourishes with nitrogen and phosphorus present.

Phosphorus is what you actually test for when testing for phosphates.

When you have a sufficient bio filter not including live rock, you should not mature a tank with any live rock in it!

Algae only has to remove and convert proteins, toxins and use the components of phosphate, if the bio media didnít oxidise all nitrate,it would have to work on that as well and single celled algae as is caulerpa, does not do well when nitrates are at high levels, it seems to become over worked.

Some algae forms especially racemosa, import anything inorganic using them for cell production rendering both harmless plus they will up take some proteins and toxins.

The lights off time producing CO 2 from algae has to be blown off,you could use a protein skimmer for this, though a drip tray style dry section of cascaded waters will blow off abundant CO2 better so that the algae else where with the lights on, does not have to work so hard. Algae does not do well with more CO2 then anything else when it absorbs the waters and its contents.

Algae do far better with no substrate present but needs sizable calcium based media chunks to attach to on a raised floor to allow cleaning under this.

The algae creates an acidic environment from excreted CO 2 at lights out time that will work similar to a calcium reactor helping to break down the coral or shells it is attached to at minuscule amounts, as do the bio community in and on the media it is growing on with its own encoruaged nitric acid environment.This is will give you complete nutrient and toxin removal and conversion via photosynthesis and some microbe assistance here and it is essential that this is all amongst a totally clean calcium media.

You will see from time to time words relating to a conclusion that once algae dies it puts po4 back into the water, for you to believe this, you are now counter productive to succeeding in the use of algae for waste management in your aquarium, in other words it is a load of rubbish!!All dead tissue emits basicly the same elements via the nitrogen cycle breaking it down.

Algae-absorbs via osmotrophy -photosynthesises-converts-locked up!!!
When algae dies, like anything else, the nitrite cycle consumes it because it is now dead tissue,leaving nitrogen and phosphorus like any bthing else.
With any completed nitrite cycle there is always inorganic phosphates from this, that's nature.

When algae goes sexual, this is a term that means nothing, when algae is suffering it goes to spore to keep its species going as it dies.This was because the waters temps are to high, not enough iodide, bad lighting, there are many reasons you have killed the algae!Algae has no specific life span, it dies from some environmental reason, at home that reason is your mistake!!

The best algae to use is obviously referred to as part of the eukaryotic organisms and these single celled creatures are individuals and each nucleus encased in membrane is an individual.

Their are some unique set ups allowing them to absorb-import through their exterior, "the membrane". Stuff like organic matter/carbon via osmotrophy, you could call it something like osmosis, water soluble matter entering through the membrane and most algae are mixotrophic, that means they can absorb the organic matter to feed upon and or photosynthesis it into glucose, and trace elements and so on.

Most caulerpa have their own personal concoction of poison with in their sap,especialy taxifolia, to ward of most munching pests.This toxin is harmless unless yuo cut the algae or the actual plant matter is eaten with the sap inside; it does not harm anything with in the aquarium if there is the next algae area to absorb it,feed on it, all gone!!Thatís one of many reasons why there needs to be lights on some where at all times over your water, the corals algae clades with their cells do not like that sap in concentrated amount!!

Than you have your unicellular species like some sponges that can feed with out the use of photosynthesis and sponges that feed from a symbiotic relation ship with cyanobacteria with in its cells.

All sponges are potentialy toxic!
These can be used as well for waste management, they take in waste and excrete as usable substances to be utilised by the eukaryotic family member caulerpa algae, they all work together to remove everything, totally! Of course the types of material they grow on helps with the oxidising, thatís of a benefit as well.

Quiet a few algae are phototrophic, yet some other algae groups have members that are mixotrophic; these take energy via photosynthesis and absorbsion-importing of organic carbons by osmotrophy-myzotrophy or phagotrohpy.

Some unicellular varieties utilise external energy sources and are totally useless in the marine aquarium due to limited or no photosynthetic mechanisms.

The reason algae are of such a great benefit to not just the planet over all, we as marine aquarium hobbyists value it for use in nutrient conversion also, this life form is photosynthetic!The machinery for this is derived from cyanobacteria
The chain from bacteria to algae is possibly-bacteria-protist symbiotic with bacteria-than you get cyano bacteria and combine sulphur bacteria and you have true photosynthetic algae!
These bacteria are purple and green sulphur bacteria; they are the only bacteria that had originally the capacity of photosynthesis along with earliest found in fossilized form!

Algae does not like temps above 25c and all algae,including the algae with the corals cells needsmall amounts of reef iodide added regualry. Its attachments-roots need to be no lower than 8 inches from the surface of the water, once in abundance it needs trimming the same as all plants need to get a thick covering, LED high out put of 50/50 blue and white diodes keeps it going very nicely!

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nutrient controlling algae forms housed in a remote refuge.

All algae will complete some nutrient removal-importing, this thread is more so dedicated to the local morph of racemosa that makes all other known caulerpa algae very weak in comparison.

Over grown racemosa ready for trimming.


Trimming the racemosa.


Trimings from the algae area of the racemosa.


The racemosa trimmings close up.


The trimmed racemosa is thrown away.

Algae area after trimming.


Algae support for importing in the aquarium as a back up for the hard working racemosa.

The lighting for algae types in the aquarium has to be on when the algae area lights are off the off set CO2 production from the algae area once lighting is off and vice a versa with algae in the aquarium.

Ulva sea lettuce in the reef aquarium.
Firstly the standard sea lettuce and then a ribbon variation are featured.
The ulva is an excellent nutrient importer,it is not invasive in any way and most herbivores will eat this variation.

Standard sea luttuce.



Ribbon variation of sea lettuce.
Pics to come

Taxifolia information thread.

http://southeastqueenslandm.aforumfree.com/t1200-caulerpa-taxifolia-racemosa-for-marine-aquariums-myths-and-facts

Local algae forms in south east Queensland

http://southeastqueenslandm.aforumfree.com/t1205-caulerpa-algae

(Multi celled Algae) † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † † †

This is normally from green to brown in colour.
All algae are accentually a plant and should be treated as such.
As we know, plants need ultraviolet radiation,"no that's false",photsynthesis is via colour wave length excitation upon the cyano bacteria with in caulerpa chloroplasts!!

The importing of nutrients can be taken in by any part of algae.
When good lighting is not available or stress is present, which can come in many forms, the algae may become pale and depleted of chlorophyll (some call this going sexual) it is actually a self preservation act when this happens as the plants begin to produce spores.

It is important to note that when algae die, the nitrogen cycle consumes it as it does with all dead tissue and the residue is the same,just a little more CO2 then there is with most other waste.

Some examples of algae are caulerpa, turtle grass, sea grass, red algae, sea lettuce, valonia and many other weed varieties.

A system best mated to these algae would be a large calcium based bio system to maintain high calcium levels to help offset the water softening affect of the algae when their lighting is off.

The lighting should be no less than 14 hours and no greater than 20 hours per day of a mix of lights or broad-spectrum high output lighting, if the lighting is weak, than keep the algae close to the surface.

An important part of the algae life cycle, is when photo activating light is not present.

This is the time when it stops producing its bi product of oxygen and manufactures co2.

Now this can affect your water as it will lower the PH, unless there is substantial protein skimming or better still a long single or multiple areas of cacaded waters or another algae area with the lights on.

This action of water cascading thru the coral rubble carrrying out gas excahnge is releasing co2 and nitrogen into the air helping to stabilise ph and the now harmless nighttime co2 helps break down small but useful amounts of the coral with in the algaes refuge, releasing calcium, strontium, magnesium etc into the water for other inverts to use.

This in a way is a complete cycle. If done right and the correct algae species are in great enough amounts and used in the right ways, the alga then purifies the water of proteins, orthophosphate,phosphorus,some nitrate, co2,nitrogen and many other nontestable substances and expel some valuable nutrients.

With the correct use of caulerpa algae,you could boast near pure ocean water, pristine tank conditions and no water changes, (if done right).

Coralline Algae, (Nongeniculate) † † † † † † †

This calcium sucker is the backbone of the reef.
It coexists with polyp corals as the base that attaches it to the reef.
These species vary from a few micrometers to several centimeters in its crusts thickness and is an algae creature that takes in calcium and makes some important chemicals needed for its skeleton and bonding to rocks and onto dead coral.
The most commonly noticed coralline group,(Nongeniculate) is the pink variety that covers areas in your tank, including the glass. It is found wherever there is good flow.

There are several colours in these including purple,red,green,etc, in the two common pink coralline varieties, one likes the shade the other likes some ultraviolet light. Both of these are part of these prolific calcium suckers in your tank, and are far more efficient than anything else at calcium extraction.

There are also other forms of coralline that look like plants that are geniculate and some are the Halimeda varieties.
There are also some crustose red algae in the coralline family; they belong to the division Rhodophyta.

Coral Algae or (Symbiodinium Microadriaticum)

These forms of algae, which can be several types in one coral creature,so they are called clades and are in a true symbiotic existence.
Research has found that certain clade members are resistant to stress unlike some others in clades, giving some corals and anemones resistance to severe environmental changes.

The coral creature has evolved away from its past within the firstly jellyfish and then anemone family.It has evolved to take on algae to enable it to make a calcium skeleton by the use of chemicals that the algae produce.
The coral creature can take on its algae in larvae form and if need be, or in adult form. Without algae the coral has no colour, no sunscreen, no calcium skeleton and no glucose.
Basically you are left with a white anemone unable to properly feed or multiply or live.

Phytoplankton

This is the bases of all life in the ocean and to some degree on land as well.This beginning of the food chain is not just important to the ocean but also to us. This creatures shell is silica, which has built up over millions of years and we mine it.

The list of important functions of this group would be enormous, but the most important function of these algae creatures is absorbing carbon dioxide as it helps clean our air. Also it absorbs most waste and pollutants converting these to valuable substances for corals and also harmless carbons.
This creature that can look like a shrimp and attains other strange shapes but more importantly makes a great deal of the earthís oxygen, plus it is the first part of the food chain for all ocean creatures.


Last edited by liquidg on 13th November 2013, 11:12 am; edited 1 time in total

_________________
Forum Admin
avatar
liquidg

Posts : 2685
Join date : 2010-02-02
Location : Brisbane bayside

Back to top Go down

Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum